What Is Neprinol?
Neprinol is a dietary supplement that contains a proprietary combination of serrapeptase, nattokinase, protease, lipase, bromelain, papain, rutin and amla, as well as cofactors like coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and magnesium. This unique blend of all-natural enzymes and antioxidants is formulated to support healthy levels of fibrin as well as other EBPs (endogenous blood particles). The formula works systemically, or throughout the body to support healthy heart and immune function.* [1-6]
What Is Fibrin?
Fibrin is a protein formed in the human body that can significantly impact health and general wellbeing – for better or for worse. Since scar tissue and thrombi (blood clots) are comprised mainly of fibrin, this protein plays a vital role in the healing process. However, if the delicate balance between fibrin deposition and removal is tipped in favor of overproduction, it can lead to the formation of dangerous and unnecessary blood clots in the body.* 
The body’s inherent fibrin removal process is accomplished by the naturally occurring enzyme plasmin. Plasmin acts as the body’s natural blood thinner and is responsible for maintaining normal blood solvency by removing unnecessarily accumulated proteins. This natural cleanup process can be supported by supplementing fibrinolytic (fibrin-degrading) enzymes, such as those found in Neprinol.* [3-5,7]
Fibrinolytic enzymes such as bromelain have been used for centuries as meat tenderizers for the food industry. Nattokinase has been identified as an exceptional fibrinolytic enzyme that is able to support healthy fibrin levels.* [8,9] This enzyme, produced by Bacillus subtilis, has been clinically shown in animal models to be four times more potent than plasmin itself and can help support healthy blood viscosity and circulatory function.* 
A New Approach to Supporting Circulatory Health*
Because of their proteolytic (protein-degrading) capacity, systemic enzymes are an excellent way to support a healthy cardiovascular system.* Some of the major causative factors of degenerative health may originate in the stomach and can eventually radiate outwards, affecting the circulatory system. As we age, we produce far less of the digestive enzymes needed to maintain optimal health. The gradual breakdown of the intestinal lining coupled with hindered digestion can allow contaminates such as undigested food particles to enter the bloodstream. These contaminates can accumulate over time, causing the blood to become thick and abrasive, eventually leading to cardiovascular and autoimmune complications.* [11-13]
Neprinol, by Arthur Andrew Medical, is a revolutionary blend of systemic enzymes and antioxidants specially formulated to support healthy circulatory function.* Systemic enzymes are similar to digestive enzymes, but primarily target the bloodstream rather than the gastrointestinal tract. These enzymes support healthy levels of Endogenous Blood Particles or EBPs.* EBPs can be decayed or oxidized cells, fibrin, fatty proteins or other unwanted materials that normally accumulate in the blood. Systemic enzymes essentially purify the blood of these EBPs, supporting healthy cardiovascular and liver function, as well as maintaining a healthy inflammatory response.* [1-15]
Recent medical research has led to the use of systemic enzymes, which function as circulatory purifiers, to aid in supporting cardiovascular health.*  By digesting cellular debris, such as fibrin and proteins, systemic enzymes assist in supporting normal healthy blood flow and viscosity.* [17,18]
Nattokinase, a fibrinolytic enzyme, has been shown to support the normal breakdown of clotting factors like fibrinogen, factor VII and factor VIII in healthy humans.  Bromelain, a pineapple extract, has been identified in animal and human studies to have properties that support normal blood viscosity.* [20,21] Clinical research in both animals and humans has suggested that enzymes (like those found in Neprinol) support healthy blood values and clotting times.* [22-25]
Besides aiding in the support of healthy blood values, systemic enzyme supplementation may also help support cardiovascular health in other ways.* Clinical evidence suggests Neprinol has the potential to help promote normal blood sugar levels, healthier lipid profiles and healthier blood pressure measures already in the normal range.* [14,26-28]
A Novel Way to Help Support Healthy Immune and Joint Function*
Promoting healthy EBP-free blood helps maintain a healthy immune system by supporting the repair of damaged tissue and assisting in maintaining healthy inflammatory responses.*  For many people the results of a healthy immune and inflammatory response are normal joint mobility, comfort and range of motion.* Typically, people try to promote these benefits using joint supplements that contain glucosamine and chondroitin, which may temporarily provide joint mobility and comfort;* however, throughout the normal aging process these products act like nothing more than temporary band-aids.* With advancing age, healthy joint mobility and comfort become exceedingly more important, and clinical research has shown that bromelain, rutin and other systemic enzymes help aid in the promotion of a normal inflammatory response for people concerned about the health and flexibility of their joints.* [30-34]
Why Is Systemic Enzyme Supplementation Important?
There are thousands of catalytic processes taking place between tissues and fluids in living plants and animals each day. These processes can occur only as a result of enzymatic reactions. Ancient men and women received enzymes from their diet via vegetables, fruits and other raw foods – nature’s richest sources of enzymes. Unfortunately, though, even the moderate temperatures at which most foods are cooked in our modern society can destroy enzymes. Although enzymes are most active in raw foods, the majority of the food consumed today is both processed and cooked at extremely high temperatures, increasing the risk of enzyme deficiencies.*
Age is another factor that greatly affects circulating enzyme levels. Young adults have far greater enzyme activity than older ones. [62,63] This diminished enzyme activity, especially with regard to the enzymes responsible for the degradation of both normal and damaged proteins, is part of the reason why people age prematurely and tend to develop health complications as they age.  When scientists examine the most common age-related illnesses, similar underlying causes can be found. Systemic enzyme supplements may support many of the processes that are lacking due to this natural regression of enzymes.
Is Neprinol Enteric Coated?
Enteric coatings are designed to protect enzymes and other supplements from the harsh acidic conditions of the stomach. Plastic-like chemicals known as phthalates are often used in this coating process. However, phthalates are actually banned in children's toys in Europe and Mexico because of their link to a variety of long-term health issues.  Still, they are often used by American pharmaceutical manufacturers as enteric coatings.
Instead of using phthalates (plastic) in enteric coatings, Arthur Andrew Medical has developed an all-natural, chemical-free Acid Armor™ capsule. These capsules are comprised of an extra-thick layer of cellulose (vegetable capsules) with a micro-threaded locking mechanism to prevent premature leakage of the capsules contents.
Acid Armor capsules have been designed to delay the release of the capsule's contents for up to an hour.* While Acid Armor™ capsules have no additional components in comparison to a typical vegetable capsule, their action is the result of smarter engineering. Acid Armor’s™ controlled release provides protection from the acidic pH of the stomach without the use of potentially harmful chemicals.
- Meletis CD, Barker JE. Therapeutic Enzymes: Using the Body's Helpers as Healers. Alt Comp Ther. 2005;74-77.
- Sumi H, Hamada H, Tsushima H, Mihara H, Muraki H. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet. Experientia. 1987;43:1110-1.
- Sumi H, Hamada H, Nakanishi K, Hiratani H. Enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in plasma by oral administration of nattokinase. Acta Haematol. 1990;84:139-43.
- Pirotta F, de Giuli-Morghen C. Bromelain: antiinflammatory and serum fibrinolytic activity after oral administration in the rat. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1978;4:1-20.
- Ako H, Cheung AH, Matsuura PK. Isolation of a fibrinolysis enzyme activator from commercial bromelain. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1981;254(1):157-67.
- Selezneva AA, Bol’shakova MD. Proteolytic complex from Aspergillus terricola. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 1986;22(1):3-11.
- Milner M, Makise K. Natto and Its Active Ingredient Nattokinase: A Potent and Safe Thrombolytic Agent. Alt Comp Therap. 2002;8(3):157-64
- Sandhya KV, Devi SG, Mathew ST. Quantitation of serrapeptase in formulations by UV method in the microplate format. Curr Drug Deliv. 2008;5(4):303-5.
- Mazzone A, Catalani M, Costanzo M, et al. Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngology pathology: A multicentre, doubleblind, randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res. 1990;18:379-88
- Fujita M, Hong K, Ito Y, et al. Thrombolytic effect of nattokinase on a chemically induced thrombosis model in rat. Biol Pharm Bull. 1995;18:1387-91.
- Koenig W. Fibrin(ogen) in cardiovascular disease: an update. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89:601-9.
- Eidelman RS, Hennekens CH. Fibrinogen: a predictor of stroke and marker of atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:499-500.
- Nesheim M. Myocardial infarction and the balance between fibrin deposition and removal. Ital Heart J. 2001;2:641-5.
- Wu D-J, Lin C-S, Lee M-Y. Lipid-Lowering Effect of Nattokinase in Patients with Primary Hypercholesterolemia. Acta Cardiol Sin. 2009;25:26-30.
- Jacob A, Pandey M, Kapoor S, Saroja R. Effect of the Indian gooseberry (amla) on serum cholesterol levels in men aged 35-55 years. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1988;42(11):939-44
- Suzuki Y, Kondo K, Matsumoto Y, et al. Dietary supplementation of fermented soybean, natto, suppresses intimal thickening and modulates the lysis of mural thrombi after endothelial injury in rat femoral artery. Life Sci. 2003;73:1289-98.
- Pais E, Alexy T, Holsworth RE Jr, Meise HJ. Effects of nattokinase, a pro-fibrinolytic enzyme, on red blood cell aggregation and whole blood viscosity. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2006;35:139-42.
- Ito H, Suzuki T. Effect of oral administration of nattokinase extract on blood mobility. Society Analyti Bio-Sci. 2002;25(4).
- Hsia CH, Shen MC, Lin JS, et al. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects. Nutr Res. 2009;29(3):190-6.
- Juhasz B, Thirunavukkarasu M, Pant R, et al. Bromelain induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/FOXO pathway in rat myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294(3):H1365-70
- Heinicke RM, van der Wal L, Yokoyama M. Effect of bromelain on human platelet aggregation. Experientia. 1972;28:844-5
- Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Nicolaides AN, et al. Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: the LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial. Angiology. 2003;54(5):531-9.
- Bracale G, Selvetella L. [Clinical study of the efficacy of and tolerance to seaprose S in inflammatory venous disease. Controlled study versus serratio-peptidase.] Minerva Cardioangiol. 1996;44(10):515-24.
- Tai MW, Sweet BV. Nattokinase for prevention of thrombosis. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006;63(12):1121-3.
- Seligman B. Oral bromelains as adjuncts in the treatment of acute thrombophlebitis. Angiology. 1969;20(1):22-6.
- Kim JY, Gum SN, Paik JK, et al. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Hypertens Res. 2008;31(8):1583-8.
- Akhtar MS, Ramzan A, Ali A, Ahmad M. Effect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011;62(6):609-16.
- Gutfreund AE, Taussig SJ, Morris AK. Effect of oral bromelain on blood pressure and heart rate of hypertensive patients. Hawaii Med J. 1978;37(5):143-6.
- Pizzorno JE, Murray MT. Textbook of Natural Medicine, 3rd ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2005:1138
- SC Bae, WJ Jung, EJ Lee, R Yu et al. Effects of antioxidant supplements intervention on the level of plasma inflammatory molecules and disease severity of rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(1):56-62.
- Cohen A, Goldman J. Bromelains Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Pa Med J. 1964;67:27-30.
- Klein G, Kullich W. Short-term Treatment of Painful Osteoarthritis of the Knee With Oral Enzymes. Clin Drug Invest. 2000;19(1):15-23.
- Klein G, Kullich W, Schnitker J, Schwann H. Efficacy and tolerance of an oral enzyme combination in painful osteoarthritis of the hip. A double-blind, randomised study comparing oral enzymes with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006;24(1):25-30.
- Tilwe GH, Beria S, Turakhia NH, Daftary GV, Schiess W. Efficacy and tolerability of oral enzyme therapy as compared to diclofenac in active osteoarthritis of the knee joint: an open randomised controlled clinical trial. J Assoc Phys India. 2001;49:621.
- Koyama A, Mori J, Tokuda H, et al. [Augmentation by serrapeptase of tissue permeation by cefotiam]. Jpn J Antibiot. 1986;39(3):761-71.
- Tinozzi S, Venegoni A. Effect of bromelain on serum and tissue levels of amoxycillin. Drug Exp Clin Res. 1978;1:39-44.
- Okumura H, Watanabe R, Kotoura Y, Nakane Y, Tangiku O. [Effects of a proteolytic-enzyme preparation used concomitantly with an antibiotic in osteoarticular infections [author's transl]. Jpn J Antibiot. 1977;30(3):223-7.
- Lucchi R, Palmieri B. [Chronic infections of the lower respiratory tract. Antibiotic therapy. Results of a double-blind study: tetracycline-HCl as a monosubstance versus tetracycline and bromeline] [Article in German]. ZFA (Stuttgart). 1980;56(11):807-12.
- Al-Khateeb TH, Nusair Y. Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase on swelling, pain and trismus after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37(3):264-68.
- Merten HA, Müller K, Drubel F, Halling F. [Volumetric verification of edema protection with Serrapeptase after third molar osteotomy] [Article in German]. Dtsch Z Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir. 1991;15(4):302-5.
- Inchingolo F, Tatullo M, Marrelli M, et al. Clinical trial with bromelain in third molar exodontia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010;14(9):771-4.
- Hotz G, Frank T, Zöller J, Wiebelt H. [Antiphlogistic effect of bromelaine following third molar removal] [Article in German]. Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1989;44(11):830-2.
- Tassman GC, Zafran JN, Zayon GM. A double-blind crossover study of a plant proteolytic enzyme in oral surgery. J Dent Med. 1965;20:51-4.
- Spaeth GL. The effect of bromelains on the inflammatory response caused by cataract extraction: a double-blind study. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1968;47:634-639.
- Zatuchni GI, Colombi DJ. Bromelains therapy for the prevention of episiotomy pain. Obstet Gynecol. 1967;29:275-8.
- Howat RC, Lewis GD. The effect of bromelain therapy on episiotomy wounds—a double-blind controlled clinical trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1972;79:951-3.
- Seltzer AP. Minimizing post-operative edema and ecchymoses by the use of an oral enzyme preparation (bromelain): a controlled study of 53 rhinoplasty cases. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1962;41:813-7.
- Blonstein JL. Control of swelling in boxing injuries. Practitioner. 1969;203:206.
- Kerkhoffs GM, Struijs PA, de Wit C, et al. A double blind, randomised, parallel group study on the efficacy and safety of treating acute lateral ankle sprain with oral hydrolytic enzymes. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4):431-5.
- Ryan RE. A double-blind clinical evaluation of bromelains in the treatment of acute sinusitis. Headache. 1967;7:13-17.
- Taub SJ. The use of ananase in sinusitis: A study of 60 patients. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1966;45:96,98.
- Seltzer AP. Adjunctive use of bromelains in sinusitis: a controlled study. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1967;46:1281-8.
- Braun JM, Schneider B, Beuth HJ. Therapeutic use, efficiency and safety of the proteolytic pineapple enzyme Bromelain-POS in children with acute sinusitis in Germany. In Vivo. 2005;19(2):417-21.
- Taub SJ. The use of bromelains in sinusitis: a double-blind clinical evaluation. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon. 1967;46:361-2.
- Majima Y, Inagaki M, Hirata K, Takeuchi K, Morishita A, Sakakura Y. The effect of an orally administered proteolytic enzyme on the elasticity and viscosity of nasal mucus. Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1988;244(6):355-9.
- Mazzone A, Catalani M, Costanzo M, et al. Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res. 1990;18(5):379-88.
- Nakamura S, Hashimoto Y, Mikami M, et al. Effect of the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase in patients with chronic airway disease. Respirology. 2003;8(3):316-20.
- Lanchava N, Nemsadze K, Chkhaidze I, Kandelaki E, Nareklishvili N. Wobenzym in treatment of recurrent obstructive bronchitis in children. Georgian Med News. 2005;127:50-3.
- Shved MI, Dubkova GI. Therapeutic efficacy of Wobenzym in patients with focal pneumonia. Visnik Naukovych Doslidzenij. 1999;2:79-82.
- Bannock L. Neprinol Case Studies. Arthur Andrew Medical.
- Pastoris O, Boschi F, Verri M, et al. The effects of aging on enzyme activities and metabolite concentrations in skeletal muscle from sedentary male and female subjects. Exp Gerontol. 2000;35(1):95-104.
- Kitani K. What really declines with age? Age (Dordr). 2007; 29(1):1–14.
- Tomaru U, Takahashi S, Ishizu A, et al. Decreased proteasomal activity causes age-related phenotypes and promotes the development of metabolic abnormalities. Am J Pathol. 2012;180(3):963-72.
- Toss H, Lindahl B, Siegbahn A, Wallentin L. Prognostic influence of increased fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels in unstable coronary artery disease. FRISC Study Group. Fragmin during Instability in Coronary Artery Disease. Circulation. 1997;96(12):4204-10.
- Pearson TA, Mensah GA, Alexander RW, et al. Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2003;107:499-511.
- Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(12):836-43.
- Patel VB, Robbins MA, Topol EJ. C-reactive protein: a 'golden marker' for inflammation and coronary artery disease. Cleve Clin J Med. 2001;68(6):521-4, 527-34.
- Hauser R, Calafat AM. Phthalates and Human Health. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:806-18.